Peter Singer Speciesism And The Equality Of Animals EssayPeter Singer - Wikipedia
Peter Singer, AC; Born: Peter Albert David Singer (1946-07-06) 6 July 1946 (age 71) Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Education: Law, History, Philosophy (BA, MA)
Peter Singer Speciesism And The Equality Of Animals Essay
Since there is no definitive set of future people to receive the benefits or costs of our actions, to whom do we grant moral standing? Secondly, and of particular importance for environmental ethics, how could any future people legitimately complain that they have been wronged by our environmentally destructive policies? For if we had not conducted such policies, they would not even exist. Ecospherical theorists often find affinity with non-western philosophies such as buddhism, , and native american religions that regard the human being as an integral part of the nature and believe that the cultivation of human spirituality involves developing emotion-based virtues including respect and concern for nature. Would this individual be wrong to destroy the tree? According to a human or animal-centered ethic, it is hard to see why such destruction would be wrong.
No doubt because of these worries, other philosophers who accord moral standing to all living organisms have taken a rather different stance. ). Recognizing our wider self thus involves identifying ourselves with all other life forms on the planet.
Fox does not regard environmental ethics to be predominantly about formulating our moral obligations concerning the environment, but instead views it as about the realization of an ecological consciousness. Of course, many philosophers are extremely skeptical of the very idea that history is inevitably unfolding towards some particular direction. Throughout the 1980s it remained marginalized within the discipline of , attracting the attention of a fairly small group of thinkers spread across the english-speaking world.
However, perhaps principles are not important, as both naess and fox have claimed. While still others have conceded that although any future generation cannot do anything for us, it can nevertheless act for the benefit of its own subsequent generations, thus pointing to the existence of a broader transgenerational reciprocity (gewirth, 2001). Moreover, sometimes the needs of a whole clash with the interests of the individuals that comprise it.
After all, does rationalism necessarily promote dualisms that are responsible for the subjugation of women and nature? Such a claim would seem odd given the many rationalist arguments that have been put forward to promote the rights and interests of both women and the natural world. Given this, the effectiveness of states and governments in getting there will affect the types of ethics that emerge. As mentioned above, these critics do not believe that an environmental ethic should place such a high premium on individuals.
The field of environmental ethics concerns human beings ethical relationship with the natural environment. After all, if we accept such a hierarchy, just how low is the moral significance of plants? If it is low enough so that i can eat them, weed them and walk on them, what is the point of granting them any moral standing at all? There remain two crucial challenges facing philosophers who attribute moral standing to individual living organisms that have not yet been addressed. Rather they must propose alternative and better means of resolving the problems we face. Following this type of reasoning, many thinkers have warned of the dangers of drawing inferences about how society should be organized from certain facts about how nature is (dobson, 1995, p. As several philosophers have pointed out, however, this ethic is still incredibly demanding.
Speciesism - Wikipedia
Speciesism (/ ˈ s p iː ʃ iː ˌ z ɪ z ə m, - s iː ˌ z ɪ z-/) involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals ...
Peter Singer Speciesism And The Equality Of Animals EssayAn Animal's Place | Michael Pollan
An Animal’s Place By Michael Pollan The New York Times Magazine, November 10, 2002. The first time I opened Peter Singer’s “Animal Liberation,” I was dining ...
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Environmental ethics - New World Encyclopedia
This was singers solution to the problem that arises when attempting to determine the interests of a non-sentient entity such as a garden weed. Bookchin argues that the liberation of both humans and nature are actually dependent on one another. He reasoned that the expanding circle of moral worth should be redrawn to include the rights of non-human animals, and to not do so would be guilty of speciesism. Warren argues that one feature inherent within an oppressive conceptual framework is the logic of domination. The planet is characterized as a unified, holistic entity with ethical worth of which the human race is of no particular significance in the long run.
It is quite possible then, that we will see business ethics address many of the same issues that environmental ethics has been tackling. As mentioned above, these critics do not believe that an environmental ethic should place such a high premium on individuals. Under these ethics, we have obligations in respect of the environment because we actually owe things to the creatures or entities within the environment themselves. Part of the job of the environmental ethicist will thus be to give such disciplines the benefit of his or her expertise. Of course, pollution and the depletion of natural resources have not been the only environmental concerns since that time dwindling plant and animal biodiversity, the loss of wilderness, the degradation of ecosystems, and climate change are all part of a raft of green issues that have implanted themselves into both public consciousness and public policy over subsequent years.
Callicott, james baird, the conceptual foundations of the land ethic in zimmerman, michael e. The ideological change will be mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent value) rather than adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. In light of this, once it is recognized that we have environmental obligations, all areas of ethics are affected, including just war theory, domestic , global distributive justice, human rights theory and many others. Of course, and as i have mentioned before, we cannot rely only on intuitions to decide who or what has moral standing. Thus, our obligations to the biotic community may require the culling of rabbits, but may not require the culling of humans. In each case, the former is held to be superior to the latter (plumwood, 1991). This involves reexamining who we are as human beings and our place within the natural world. Just how are the needs and interests of the current generation to be weighed against the needs and interests of those human beings in the future? Can we justifiably let present people go without for the sake of future humans? Clearly then, the problems posed by just a minimal extension of moral standing are real and difficult. Rather than assign moral standing on the identification of some particular characteristic, such as consciousness or a biological good of ones own, leopold is claimed to accord moral standing on the basis of moral sentiment and affection. .Environmental ethics is a branch of applied ethics and a part of environmental philosophy. It developed out of three insights: first, that ethics cannot be built ...